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Science

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)-The Antibiotics and Disinfectants Era

A wide range of pathogenic (= disease-causing) bacteria and fungi cause numerous health problems in humans and animals. Some examples are Campylobacter, Candida, Clostridium, E. coli, Legionella, Listeria, Salmonella, Staphylococcus (MRSA hospital bacteria), and Streptococcus. In addition to the dangers that these organisms bring to us on an individual level, they also provide huge economic losses such as increased animal mortality (agriculture), loss of production (food) and increasing health costs.

 

The discovery of antibiotics and disinfectants offered a solution in the big fight against these bacteria. When in World War II the first antibiotic penicillin was applied in practice, this proved to be a panacea to suppress infection. In the decades that followed, these chemicals have been used fully. It was under the assumption that diseases and bacteria could thus be suppressed forever.

 

Unfortunately, it soon became clear that certain bacteria began to oppose the commonly used antibiotics. They have become resistant. This means that a certain pathogen was no longer affected by a given dose of antibiotic. Healing is thus hampered.In the next phase, multi-resistant bacteria appeared. These are bacteria that are resistant to different types of antibiotics. The known MRSA bacteria (which stands for Multi-ResistantStaphylococcus Aureus) was one of the first to arise. This bacterium still causes major problems in hospitals worldwide.The issue of multi-resistant bacteria led to the start of a bad and dangerous development in general hygiene. Suddenly it was a strong emphasis on the ‘sanitizing’ of an area. They used the motto: ifyou can not suppress it with antibiotics once they have caused illnesses, then it should just be killed on and around people.

In the last 15 years, we have also seen a dramatic increase in sales of disinfectants, which are becoming more ‘normal’ household devices equipped with a touch dangerous chemicals. The Covid-19 pandemic has turned what was already a bad situation into a devastating one with unprecedented amounts of disinfectants deployed unnecessarily during the pandemic. The consequences are dramatic. In recent years, we see that many of the resistant bacteria very quickly develop resistance to these disinfectants. It is clear that the era of antibiotics and disinfectants use has come to an end and that alternatives, such as prebiotic and probiotic cleaning, are not just necessary, but are the solution to many of the problems we are facing.

Biofilm

 

A biofilm is a complex aggregation of micro-organisms in a protective and adhesive matrix. Although innumerable different types of biofilm can arise, they do have some characteristics in common: they are attached to a (carrier) surface, have an irregular structure, are home to sometimes very diverse microbial community and are strongly reinforced by the extracellular matrix of polymeric substances. In no time, the biofilm grows into a macroscopic structure with which a very persistent matrix is produced that protects the microorganisms from the outside world. A mature biofilm is a very complex structure in which the various micro-organisms interact with each other and each performs their own metabolic functions. Their common goal: shielding the outside world and the maintenance of the protective matrix. The extracellular matrix can be seen as the “glue” that holds the whole biofilm together. It consists of polymers, which are called collectively extra cellular polymeric substances or exopolysaccharides (EPS). This matrix protects the cells and allows internal communications by using biochemical signals. There will also often be “channels” found in the matrix, which allow the transport of nutrients. It is known that micro-organisms in a biofilm will behave differently. There are often more pathogens in such structures which share theirDNA and are also 1000x more resistant against antibiotics, detergents and biocides.

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The Synbio Concept

Microbial management via Biological Sanitation

Until now, conventional sanitation, through chemicals, has produced a temporary action, without preventing recontamination, with a costly environmental impact, and with the possibility of promoting the appearance of resistant strains.A superior alternative for disinfection is microbial management. Bacteria are vital for life on earth, and the majority of the bacteria are useful. It is therefore not advisable to get rid of them all.Instead, it is better to strive for a healthy balance between the bacteria, so the risk of harmful bacteria will be much smaller. Microbial management through Biological Sanitation is based on the balance of the microbiome: rather than trying to eliminate all microbes, it is more effective to replace the bad ones with good microbes.You essentially strive to achieve a stable microflora in a given area, not by fighting against the bacteria but by fighting with them. This can be done by Chrisal’s Synbio cleaning solutions

Microbial management via Biological Sanitation

How to approach the biofilm

The formation and presence of biofilm are, as the name clearly states, a problem of a biological nature. It is known that a biofilm will shield itself from strong and effective kinds of chemicals such as detergents, biocides and antibiotics. The only way to prevent the formation of biofilms and to remove existing instances efficiently is by using biological infiltrators from inside to do their work.The probiotic bacteria in Chrisal’s Synbio products ensure that:

 

  1. The basic building blocks such as proteins, sugars, and glycerides will be consumed, and therefore are not available for the build-up of an extracellular matrix. This way they proactively prevent the formation and appearance of new biofilms.

  2. The present active biofilms will be broken down. The probiotic bacteria will be admitted to the biofilm, where they can act on the components of the matrix from the inside so that it is weaker. Synbio bacteria also consume a large proportion of the nutrients, so that an increase or restoration of biofilm is prevented. Thus the existing biofilm will weaken and crumble.

  3. Following the removal of the existing biofilm formations, the surface will be kept clean going forward as long as the Synbio probiotic bacteria are applied regularly.

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Composition of Prebiotic and Probiotic Cleaning

Probiotic-cleaning
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In Probiotic cleaning products, there are “green” cleaning components that provide the initial, superficial clean; the removal of visible dirt. The probiotic cleaners contain a combination of enzymes and probiotic bacteria, which are responsible for cleaning aftereffects. They provide stabilization of the microflora. Besides cleaning, the probiotic bacteria also provide an “occupation”of the areas with harmless, “good” bacteria. As a result, there is no longer sufficient space available for food and other organisms that “land” on the surface and it reduces the risk of the development of harmful bacteria. With prebiotic and probiotic cleaners you do two things at once: on the one hand, a healthy microflora is applied to the surface, on the other hand, you no longer use harmful chemical disinfectants so the resistance of bacteria is no longer encouraged